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GMO SCIENCE

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GMO SCIENCE

GMO SCIENCE – STUDIES & RESEARCH

 
This compilation is a sample of the scientific references including over 1700 studies, surveys, and analyses that suggest various adverse impacts and potential adverse impacts of genetically engineered (GE/GMO) crops, foods and related pesticides. This list contains references regarding health impacts, environmental impacts, including impact of non-target organisms (NTOs), resistance of target organisms, pesticide drift, genetic contamination, horizontal gene transfer, unintended effects, as well as references regarding yields, social impact, ethics, economics and regulations. In most cases, links are provided to the abstracts for the references or links to sites where the study can be purchased.

For Glyphosate studies, click on this link.

For Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) studies, click on this link.

1.Aaziz R, Tepfer M. (1999) Recombination in RNA viruses and in virus-resistant transgenic plants. J Gen Virol. Jun;80 ( Pt 6):1339-46. http://vir.sgmjournals.org/content/80/6/1339.long
2.Abdo E. M., et al. Chemical Analysis of BT corn “Mon- 810: Ajeeb-YG®” and its counterpart non-Bt corn “Ajeeb”. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC) e-ISSN: 2278–5736. Volume 4, Issue 1 (Mar.–Apr. 2013), PP 55–60 http://iosrjournals.org/iosr-jac/papers/vol4-issue1/L0415560.pdf
3.E. Abdo, O. Barbary and O. Shaltout, “Feeding Study with Bt Corn (MON810: Ajeeb YG) on Rats: Biochemical Analysis and Liver Histopathology,” Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 2, 2014, pp. 185-195. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=42183#.Uy8XQIVVitM
4.S. L. Abidi, G. R. List, K. A. Rennick (1999) Effect of genetic modification on the distribution of minor constituents in canola oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Volume 76, Issue 4, pp 463-467 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11746-999-0025-3
5.Accinelli, C.; Screpanti, C.; Vicari, A. & Catizone, P. (2004) Influence of insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki on the degradation of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium in soil samples. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment,103, 497-507. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880903004080
6.Francisca Acevedo, Elleli Huerta, Caroline Burgeff, Patricia Koleff & José Sarukhán (2011) Is transgenic maize what Mexico really needs ? Nature Biotechnology. January, volume 29 number 1, 23-24 http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Francisca_Acevedo2/publication/49742660_Is_transgenic_maize_what_Mexico_really_needs/links/0c96051eeaca4cd564000000
7.Achiorno, C. L., C. de Villalobos, and L. Ferrari. (2008) Toxicity of the Herbicide Glyphosate to Chordodes Nobilii (Gordiida, Nematomorpha). Chemosphere 71, no. 10 (May): 1816-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18394676
8.Acquavella JF, Alexander BH, Mandel JS, Gustin C, Baker B, Chapman P, Bleeke M. (2004) Glyphosate biomonitoring for farmers and their families: results from the Farm Family Exposure Study. Environ Health Perspect. Mar;112(3):321-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14998747
9.Adam A, Marzuki A, Abdul Rahman H, Abdul Aziz M. (1997)The oral and intratracheal toxicities of ROUNDUP and its components to rats. Vet Hum Toxicol. Jun;39(3):147-51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9167243
10.Adugna A, Bekele E: (2013) Geographical distribution and phenotypic diversity in wild sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] in Ethiopia: implications for germplasm conservation and crop-wild flow. Plant Genet Resour , 11:68–76 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8859944
11.Asfaw Adugna (2013) Ecotypic variation for seed dormancy, longevity and germination requirements in wild/weedy Sorghum bicolor in Ethiopia: implications for seed mediated transgene dispersal and persistence. SpringerPlus May, 2:248, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/2193-1801-2-248
12.Adugna, A., & Bekele, E. (2013) Morphology and fitness components of wild 3 crop F1 hybrids of Sorghum bi- color (L.) in Ethiopia: implications for survival and introgression of crop genes in the wild pool. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization: 1-10 http://www.researchgate.net/publication/259437843_Morphology_and_fitness_components_of_wild_crop_F1_hybrids_of_Sorghum_bicolor_%28L.%29_in_Ethiopia_implications_for_survival_and_introgression_of_crop_genes_in_the_wild_pool
13.Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen, Miguel Pedro Guerra, Odd-Gunnar Wikmark and Rubens Onofre Nodari (2013) Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil. Proteome Science , 11:46 http://www.proteomesci.com/content/11/1/46
14. Agodi A, Barchitta M, Grillo A and Sciacca S (2006) Detection of genetically modified DNA sequences in milk from the Italian market. Int J Hyg Environ Health 209:81- 88. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16373205
15.Aheto, D.W., Bøhn, T., Breckling, B., van den Berg, J., Ching, L.L. and Wikmark, O.-G. (2013) Implications of GM crops in subsistence-based agricultural systems in Africa. In: Breckling, B. and Verhoeven, R. GM-Crop Cultivation – Ecological Effects on a Landscape Scale, Theorie in der Ökologie 17. Frankfurt, Peter Lang. www.gmls.eu/beitraege/93_Aheto.pdf‎
16. Iftikhar Ahmad, David Malloch (1995) Interaction of soil microflora with the bioherbicide phosphinothricin. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment Netherlands. Vol. 54, no. 3 Jul p. 165-174 http://europepmc.org/abstract/AGR/IND20617872/reload=0;jsessionid=gzL79cPgBlupOuS2JMt9.52
17.C. Ahrens, J. Chung, T. Meyer, and C. Auer (2011) Bentgrass Distribution Surveys and Habitat Suitability Maps Support Ecological Risk Assessment in Cultural Landscapes. Weed Science 59(2):145-154. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1614/WS-D-10-00094.1

18.Collin W. Ahrens and Carol A. Auer (2012) Genetic Relationship between Cultivated and Feral Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) in a Cultural Landscape. Weed Science: October-December 2012, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 583-588. http://www.wssajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1614/WS-D-12-00041.1

19.Ahrens CW, Auer CA (2012) Annual Glyphosate Treatments Alter Growth of Unaffected Bentgrass (Agrostis) Weeds and Plant Community Composition. PLoS ONE 7(12): e50643. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0050643
20.Ahteensuu, Marko; Siipi, Helena (2009) A Critical Assessment of Public Consultations on GMOs in the European Union. Environmental Values, Volume 18, Number 2, May, pp. 129-152(24) http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/whp/ev/2009/00000018/00000002/art00003?crawler=true
21.N B Akesson, and W E Yates (1964)Problems Relating to Application of Agricultural Chemicals and Resulting Drift Residues. Annual Review of Entomology Vol. 9: 285-318 http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.en.09.010164.001441?journalCode=ento&

22.Albinati ACL, Moreira ELT, Albinati RCB, J.V. Carvalho, A.D. de Lira, G.B. Santos, L.V.O. Vidal (2009) Biomarcadores histológicos – toxicidade crônica pelo Roundup em piauçu (Leporinus macrocephalus). Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 61(3):621–627. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/abmvz/v61n3/15.pdf
23.ALBRECHT, L.P.; ALBRECHT, A.J.P.; BRACCINI, A.L.; OLIVEIRA JR., R.S.; ZOBIOLE, L.H.S.; ÁVILA, M.R. (2014) The role of glyphosate in RR soybean production and seed quality. Planta daninha vol.32 no.2 Viçosa Apr./June http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-83582014000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

24.Al-Hmoud N, Al-Rousan H, Hayek HBO and Ibrahim MA. (2010) Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean food products in the Jordanian Market. Biotechnology. 9 (4): 499-505, http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=biotech.2010.499.505&amp
25.Kassim Al-Khatib, Robert Parker and E. Patrick Fuerst (1992) Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Response to Simulated Herbicide Spray Drift. Weed Technology Vol. 6, No. 4 (Oct. – Dec., 1992), pp. 956-960 http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3988318?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103342957983
26.Kassim Al-Khatib, Robert Parker and E. Patrick Fuerst (1993) Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Response to Simulated Herbicide Drift. Weed Technology Vol. 7, No. 1 (Jan. – Mar.), pp. 97-102 http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3987967?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103343299053
27. Al-Khatib, K., M. M. Claassen, P. W. Stahlman, P. W. Geier, D. L. Regehr, S. R. Duncan, and W. F. Heer. (2003) Grain Sorghum Response to Simulated Drift from Glufosinate, Glyphosate, Imazethapyr, and Sethoxydim.” Weed Technology 17, no. 2(Apr-Jun): 261-65. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3989306?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103045798183
28.Allison, RF, Scneider WL, Greene AE (1996) Recombination in plants expressing viral transgenes. Seminars in Virology 7(6) pp 417-422 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1044577396900505
29.Alpert CA, Mater DD, Muller MC, Ouriet MF, Duval-Iflah Y, Corthier G. (2003) Worst-case scenarios for horizontal gene transfer from Lactococcus lactis carrying heterologous genes to Enterococcus faecalis in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice. Environ Biosafety Res. Jul-Sep;2(3):173-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15612415
30.Al-Rousan, Hiyam; Al-Hmoud, Nisrren; Ibrahim, Mohammed (2010) A study on the occurrence of genetically modified soybean and maize feed products in the Jordanian market Journal of Cell & Molecular Biology;Dec, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p87 http://jcmb.halic.edu.tr/pdf/8-2/10.pdf

31.Al-Salameen F, Kumar V, Al-Aqeel H, Al-Hashash H, Hejji AB. (2012) Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait. GM Crops Food. Oct-Dec;3(4):283-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22892687
32.Miguel A. Altieri, Peter M. Rosset, Clara I. Nicholls (1997) Biological control and agricultural modernization: Towards resolution of some contradictions Agriculture and Human Values September, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 303-310 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1007499401616
33.Altieri, M.A. and Rosset, P. (1999). Ten reasons why biotechnology will not ensure food security, protect the environment and reduce poverty in the developing world. AgBioForum, 2(3&4), 155-162. http://agbioforum.org/v2n34/v2n34a03-altieri.htm
34.Altieri MA, Rosset P. (1999) Strengthening the case for why biotechnology will not help. The developing world: A response to MCGloughlin. AgBioForum. 2(3-4):226–236. http://www.agbioforum.org/v2n34/v2n34a14-altieri.htm
35.Altieri, M. A. (2000). The ecological impacts of transgenic crops on agroecosystem health. Ecosystem Health, 6, 13-23. http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20013038747.html
36.Altieri, M. A. (2001). Genetically engineered crops: Separating the myths from the reality. Bulletin of Science Technology and Society, 21(2), 129-146. http://www.bio-nica.info/Biblioteca/Altieri2001MythsAndReality.PDF
37.Altieri, M. A. (2003). The sociocultural and food security impacts of genetic pollution via transgenic crops of traditional varieties in Latin American centers of peasant agriculture. Bulletin of Science, Technology, & Society, 23,1-10. http://bst.sagepub.com/content/23/5/350.abstract
38.Miguel A. Altieri (2005) The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production Bulletin of Science Technology Society August vol. 25 no. 4 361-371 http://bst.sagepub.com/content/25/4/361.abstract
39.Al-Rajab AJ, Schiavon M. (2010) Degradation of 14C-glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in three agricultural soils. J Environ Sci (China). ;22(9):1374-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21174968
40.Alvarez-Morales A (2002) Transgenes in maize landraces in Oaxaca: official report on the extent and implications. The 7th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Beijing, China October 10-16 page 65 http://www.saveourseeds.org/downloads/proceedings_BEIJING_oct_2002.pdf
41.Carlos Alvarez-Moya; Mónica Reynoso Silva; Carlos Valdez Ramírez; David Gómez Gallardo; Rafael León Sánchez; Alejandro Canales Aguirre; Alfredo Feria Velasco (2014) Comparison of the in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity of glyphosate isopropylamine salt in three different organisms Genet. Mol. Biol. vol.37 no.1 Ribeirão Preto http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1415-47572014000100016&script=sci_arttext
42.Amanor-Boadu V, Amanor-Boadu Y (2002). A survey of post-marketing surveillance of potential human late health effects of genetically modified foods’ initiatives: lessons for Canada’s strategy. Centre for Surveillance Coordination, Health Canada http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/pyf20i00
43.Amer SM, Aly FA. (2001) Genotoxic effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and its metabolite 2,4-dichlorophenol in mouse. Mutat Res. 2001 Jul 25;494(1-2):1-12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11423340

44.Anderson, P. L., Hellmich, R. L. Sears, M. K., Sumerford, D. V., and Lewis, L. C. (2004) Effects of Cry1Ab-expressing corn anthers on monarch butterfly larvae. Environ. Entomol. 33: 1109-1115. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/0046-225X-33.4.1109
45.Anderson, P. L., Hellmich, R. L., Prasifka, J. R., and Lewis, L. C. (2005) Effects on fitness and behavior of monarch butterfly larvae exposed to a combination of Cry1Ab-expressing corn anthers and pollen. Environ. Entomol. 34:944-952. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/0046-225X-34.4.944
46.Andow, D.A. and A.Hilbeck. (2004) Science-based risk assessment for non-target effects of transgenic crops. Bioscience 54(7):637-649 www.cbd.int/doc/articles/2008/a-00634.pdf
47.‎Andow DA, Lövei GL, Arpaia S (2006) Ecological risk assessment for Bt crops. Nat Biotechnol 24:749–751 http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v24/n7/full/nbt0706-749.html
48.Andow, D.A.& Zwahlen,C. (2006) Assessing environmental risks of transgenic plants. Ecology Letters 9:196-214 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16958885
49.Andow, D. A., Lövei, G. L., & Arpaia, S. (2009). Cry toxins and proteinase inhibitors in transgenic plants do have non-zero effects on natural enemies in the laboratory: Rebuttal to Shelton et al. 2009. Environmental entomology, 38(6), 1528-1532. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/022.038.0602

50.Andow, D. A.; Lövei, G. L. (2012) Cry Toxins in Transgenic Plants Have Direct Effects on Natural Enemies in the Laboratory Environmental Entomology, Volume 41, Issue 5, Pages 1045-1276, pp. 1045-1049(5) http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/EN11238?journalCode=enve

51.Anghel G, Popovici V (2008). Romanian approach to genetically modified organisms. Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Science Series; Vol. 17 Issue 1, p183 http://steconomice.uoradea.ro/anale/volume/2008/v1-international-business-and-european-integration/033.pdf

52.Annett, R., Habibi, H. R. and Hontela, A. (2014), Impact of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides on the freshwater environment. J. Appl. Toxicol., 34: 458–479. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jat.2997/abstract
53.Antoniou M. Genetic pollution. (1996) Nutritional Therapy Today. 6(4): 8–11. http://www.psrast.org/mianart1.htm
54.Antoniou M, Habib MEM, Howard C V, Jennings R C, Leifert C, Nodari R O, Robinson C J, Fagan J (2012) Teratogenic Effects of Glyphosate-Based Herbicides : Divergence of Regulatory Decisions from Scientific Evidence. J Environ Anal Toxicol S4:006 http://www.omicsonline.org/2161-0525/2161-0525-S4-006.php
55.Aono M, Wakiyama S, Nagatsu M, Nakajima N, Tamaoki M, Kubo A, Saji H (2006) Detection of feral transgenic oilseed rape with multiple-herbicide resistance in Japan. Environ Biosafety Res. Apr-Jun;5(2):77-87. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17328854
56.Aono M, Wakiyama S, Nagatsu M, Kaneko Y, Nishizawa T, Nakajima N, Tamaoki M, Kubo A, Saji H. (2011) Seeds of a possible natural hybrid between herbicide-resistant Brassica napus and Brassica rapa detected on a riverbank in Japan. GM Crops. Jun-Dec;2(3):201-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22179196
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58.Arbuckle, T.E.; Lin, Z.& Mery, L.S. (2001). An exploratory analysis of the effect of pesticide exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion in an Ontario farm population. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109, 851-857. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240415/
59.

ELENA ARRIAGA ARELLANO, JORGE E. LINARES SALGADO (2013) The risk assessment of transgenic plants: from regulation to bioethics. Revista de bioética y derecho : Núm.: 27 http://www.raco.cat/index.php/RevistaBioeticaDerecho/article/view/262632

60.Aris A, Leblanc S. (2011) Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Reprod Toxicol. May;31(4):528-33 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21338670
61.Aris Aziz (2011) Response to Bayer CropScience’s position on the findings of glufosinate and its metabolite Reproductive toxicology vol. 32, no4, pp. 496-497 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623811003844
62.Aris Aziz (2012) Response to “Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s” comments Reproductive toxicology vol. 33, no3, pp. 403-404 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623812000238
63.Aziz Aris (2011) Response to comments from Monsanto scientists on our study showing detection of glyphosate and Cry1Ab in blood of women with and without pregnancy. Reproductive Toxicology 10/2011; 33(1):122-3.
64.Sophia Armenakas, Macrene Alexiades-Armenakas (2013) Genetically-Modified Organisms in United States Agriculture: Mandate for Food Labeling Food & Nutrition Sciences . Aug, Vol. 4 Issue 8, p807-811. 5p. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=35189&
65.Neide Armiliato, Dib Ammar, Luciane Nezzi, Marcos Straliotto, Yara M. R. Muller & Evelise M. Nazari (2014) Changes in Ultrastructure and Expression of Steroidogenic Factor-1 in Ovaries of Zebrafish Danio rerio Exposed to Glyphosate Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues Volume 77, Issue 7, pages 405-414 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15287394.2014.880393#.U1xwhPldXoE

66.J-F Arnaud, F Viard, M Delescluse, and J Cuguen (2003) Evidence for gene flow via seed dispersal from crop to wild relatives in Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae): consequences for the release of genetically modified crop species with weedy lineages. Proc Biol Sci. Aug 7; 270(1524): 1565–1571. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1691408/

67.Arregui MC, Lenardon A, Sanchez D, Maitre MI, Scotta R, Enrique S(2004). Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean. Pest Manag Sci. 60:163-166. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14971683
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70.Mehmet Artemel (2012) The Turkish Council of State orders a stay on the importation of GMOs. Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice (2012) 7 (6): 403-405. http://jiplp.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/6/403

71.A. Ashouri, Dominique Michaud, Conrad Cloutier (2001) Recombinant and classically selected factors of potato plant resistance to the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata , variously affect the potato aphid parasitoid Aphidius nigripes BioControl December, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 401-418 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1014123712776#page-1

72.Iulie Aslaksen, Anne Ingeborg Myhr (2007) “The worth of a wildflower”: Precautionary perspectives on the environmental risk of GMOs Ecological Economics Volume 60, Issue 3, 15 January, Pages 489–497 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800906003612

73.Iulie Aslaksen; Solveig Glomsrød; Anne Ingeborg Myhr (2013) Post-normal science and ecological economics: strategies for precautionary approaches and sustainable development Int. J. of Sustainable Development, Vol.16, No.1/2, pp.107 – 126 http://www.inderscience.com/info/inarticle.php?artid=53793

74.Astiz M, de Alaniz MJ, Marra CA. (2009) Effect of pesticides on cell survival in liver and brain rat tissues. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. Oct;72(7):2025-32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19493570
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80.Austin, A.P.; Harris, G.E. & Lucey, W.P. (1991). Impact of an organophosphate herbicide (Glyphosate®) on periphyton communities developed in experimental streams. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 47, 29-35. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01689449
81.Avigliano, L., Alvarez, N., Mac Loughlin, C., & Rodríguez, E. M. (2014). Effects of glyphosate on egg incubation, larvae hatching and ovarian re‐maturation, in the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 33: 1879–1884. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.2635/abstract
82.Avila-Garcia, W.V. & Mallory-Smith, C. (2011) Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne) populations also exhibit resistance to glufosinate.Weed Science, 59, 305-309. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1614/WS-D-11-00012.1
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