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This compilation is a sample of the scientific references including over 1800 studies, surveys, and analyses that suggest various adverse impacts and potential adverse impacts of genetically engineered (GE/GMO) crops, foods and related pesticides. This list contains references regarding health impacts, environmental impacts, including impact of non-target organisms (NTOs), resistance of target organisms, pesticide drift, genetic contamination, horizontal gene transfer, unintended effects, as well as references regarding yields, social impact, ethics, economics and regulations. In most cases, links are provided to the abstracts for the references or links to sites where the study can be purchased.

For Glyphosate studies, click on this link.

For Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) studies, click on this link.

1.Aaziz R, Tepfer M. (1999) Recombination in RNA viruses and in virus-resistant transgenic plants. J Gen Virol. Jun;80 ( Pt 6):1339-46. http://vir.sgmjournals.org/content/80/6/1339.long
2.Sunny O. Abarikwu, Oghenetega F. Akiri, Mojisola A. Durojaiye, and Adenike F. Alabi (2014) Combined effects of repeated administration of Bretmont Wipeout (Glyphosate) and Ultrazin (Atrazine) on testosterone, oxidative stress and sperm quality of Wistar rats. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, Ahead of Print : Pages 1-31 http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15376516.2014.989349
3.Abdo E. M., et al. Chemical Analysis of BT corn “Mon- 810: Ajeeb-YG®” and its counterpart non-Bt corn “Ajeeb”. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC) e-ISSN: 2278–5736. Volume 4, Issue 1 (Mar.–Apr. 2013), PP 55–60 http://iosrjournals.org/iosr-jac/papers/vol4-issue1/L0415560.pdf
4.E. Abdo, O. Barbary and O. Shaltout, “Feeding Study with Bt Corn (MON810: Ajeeb YG) on Rats: Biochemical Analysis and Liver Histopathology,” Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 2, 2014, pp. 185-195. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=42183#.Uy8XQIVVitM
5.S. L. Abidi, G. R. List, K. A. Rennick (1999) Effect of genetic modification on the distribution of minor constituents in canola oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Volume 76, Issue 4, pp 463-467 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11746-999-0025-3
6.Accinelli, C.; Screpanti, C.; Vicari, A. & Catizone, P. (2004) Influence of insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki on the degradation of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium in soil samples. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment,103, 497-507. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880903004080
7.Francisca Acevedo, Elleli Huerta, Caroline Burgeff, Patricia Koleff & José Sarukhán (2011) Is transgenic maize what Mexico really needs ? Nature Biotechnology. January, volume 29 number 1, 23-24 http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Francisca_Acevedo2/publication/49742660_Is_transgenic_maize_what_Mexico_really_needs/links/0c96051eeaca4cd564000000
8.Achiorno, C. L., C. de Villalobos, and L. Ferrari. (2008) Toxicity of the Herbicide Glyphosate to Chordodes Nobilii (Gordiida, Nematomorpha). Chemosphere 71, no. 10 (May): 1816-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18394676
9.Ackermann W, Coenen M, Schrödl W, Shehata AA, Krüger M. (2014) The Influence of Glyphosate on the Microbiota and Production of Botulinum Neurotoxin During Ruminal Fermentation. Curr Microbiol. 2014 Nov 19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407376
10.Acquavella JF, Alexander BH, Mandel JS, Gustin C, Baker B, Chapman P, Bleeke M. (2004) Glyphosate biomonitoring for farmers and their families: results from the Farm Family Exposure Study. Environ Health Perspect. Mar;112(3):321-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14998747
11.Adam A, Marzuki A, Abdul Rahman H, Abdul Aziz M. (1997)The oral and intratracheal toxicities of ROUNDUP and its components to rats. Vet Hum Toxicol. Jun;39(3):147-51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9167243
12.Adugna A, Bekele E: (2013) Geographical distribution and phenotypic diversity in wild sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] in Ethiopia: implications for germplasm conservation and crop-wild flow. Plant Genet Resour , 11:68–76 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8859944
13.Asfaw Adugna (2013) Ecotypic variation for seed dormancy, longevity and germination requirements in wild/weedy Sorghum bicolor in Ethiopia: implications for seed mediated transgene dispersal and persistence. SpringerPlus May, 2:248, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/2193-1801-2-248
14.Adugna, A., & Bekele, E. (2013) Morphology and fitness components of wild 3 crop F1 hybrids of Sorghum bi- color (L.) in Ethiopia: implications for survival and introgression of crop genes in the wild pool. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization: 1-10 http://www.researchgate.net/publication/259437843_Morphology_and_fitness_components_of_wild__crop_F1_hybrids_of_Sorghum_bicolor_(L.)_in_Ethiopia_implications_for_survival_and_introgression_of_crop_genes_in_the_wild_pool
15.Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen, Miguel Pedro Guerra, Odd-Gunnar Wikmark and Rubens Onofre Nodari (2013) Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil. Proteome Science , 11:46 http://www.proteomesci.com/content/11/1/46
16.Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen, Vinicius Vilperte, Rafael Fonseca Benevenuto, Carina Macagnan Rover, Terje Ingemar Traavik and Rubens Onofre Nodari (2014) Effect of stacking insecticidal cry and herbicide toleranceepsps transgenes on transgenic maize proteome. BMC Plant Biology 2014, 14:346 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2229/14/346/abstract
17.Agodi A, Barchitta M, Grillo A and Sciacca S (2006) Detection of genetically modified DNA sequences in milk from the Italian market. Int J Hyg Environ Health 209:81- 88. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16373205
18.Aheto, D.W., Bøhn, T., Breckling, B., van den Berg, J., Ching, L.L. and Wikmark, O.-G. (2013) Implications of GM crops in subsistence-based agricultural systems in Africa. In: Breckling, B. and Verhoeven, R. GM-Crop Cultivation – Ecological Effects on a Landscape Scale, Theorie in der Ökologie 17. Frankfurt, Peter Lang. www.gmls.eu/beitraege/93_Aheto.pdf‎
19. Iftikhar Ahmad, David Malloch (1995) Interaction of soil microflora with the bioherbicide phosphinothricin. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment Netherlands. Vol. 54, no. 3 Jul p. 165-174 http://europepmc.org/abstract/AGR/IND20617872/reload=0;jsessionid=gzL79cPgBlupOuS2JMt9.52
20.C. Ahrens, J. Chung, T. Meyer, and C. Auer (2011) Bentgrass Distribution Surveys and Habitat Suitability Maps Support Ecological Risk Assessment in Cultural Landscapes. Weed Science 59(2):145-154. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1614/WS-D-10-00094.1
21.Collin W. Ahrens and Carol A. Auer (2012) Genetic Relationship between Cultivated and Feral Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) in a Cultural Landscape. Weed Science: October-December 2012, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 583-588. http://www.wssajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1614/WS-D-12-00041.1
22.Ahrens CW, Auer CA (2012) Annual Glyphosate Treatments Alter Growth of Unaffected Bentgrass (Agrostis) Weeds and Plant Community Composition. PLoS ONE 7(12): e50643. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0050643
23.Ahteensuu, Marko; Siipi, Helena (2009) A Critical Assessment of Public Consultations on GMOs in the European Union. Environmental Values, Volume 18, Number 2, May, pp. 129-152(24) http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/whp/ev/2009/00000018/00000002/art00003?crawler=true
24.N B Akesson, and W E Yates (1964)Problems Relating to Application of Agricultural Chemicals and Resulting Drift Residues. Annual Review of Entomology Vol. 9: 285-318 http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.en.09.010164.001441?journalCode=ento&
25.Albinati ACL, Moreira ELT, Albinati RCB, J.V. Carvalho, A.D. de Lira, G.B. Santos, L.V.O. Vidal (2009) Biomarcadores histológicos – toxicidade crônica pelo Roundup em piauçu (Leporinus macrocephalus). Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 61(3):621–627. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/abmvz/v61n3/15.pdf
26.ALBRECHT, L.P.; ALBRECHT, A.J.P.; BRACCINI, A.L.; OLIVEIRA JR., R.S.; ZOBIOLE, L.H.S.; ÁVILA, M.R. (2014) The role of glyphosate in RR soybean production and seed quality. Planta daninha vol.32 no.2 Viçosa Apr./June http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-83582014000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
27.Al-Hmoud N, Al-Rousan H, Hayek HBO and Ibrahim MA. (2010) Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean food products in the Jordanian Market. Biotechnology. 9 (4): 499-505, http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=biotech.2010.499.505&amp
28.Ali, S. E. B., Madi, Z. E., Hochegger, R., Quist, D., Prewein, B., Haslberger, A. G., & Brandes, C. (2014). Mutation Scanning in a Single and a Stacked Genetically Modified (GM) Event by Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis. International journal of molecular sciences, 15(11), 19898-19923. http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/15/11/19898/pdf
29.Kassim Al-Khatib, Robert Parker and E. Patrick Fuerst (1992) Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Response to Simulated Herbicide Spray Drift. Weed Technology Vol. 6, No. 4 (Oct. – Dec., 1992), pp. 956-960 http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3988318?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103342957983
30.Kassim Al-Khatib, Robert Parker and E. Patrick Fuerst (1993) Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Response to Simulated Herbicide Drift. Weed Technology Vol. 7, No. 1 (Jan. – Mar.), pp. 97-102 http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3987967?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103343299053
31. Al-Khatib, K., M. M. Claassen, P. W. Stahlman, P. W. Geier, D. L. Regehr, S. R. Duncan, and W. F. Heer. (2003) Grain Sorghum Response to Simulated Drift from Glufosinate, Glyphosate, Imazethapyr, and Sethoxydim.” Weed Technology 17, no. 2(Apr-Jun): 261-65. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3989306?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103045798183
32.Allison, RF, Scneider WL, Greene AE (1996) Recombination in plants expressing viral transgenes. Seminars in Virology 7(6) pp 417-422 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1044577396900505
33.Alpert CA, Mater DD, Muller MC, Ouriet MF, Duval-Iflah Y, Corthier G. (2003) Worst-case scenarios for horizontal gene transfer from Lactococcus lactis carrying heterologous genes to Enterococcus faecalis in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice. Environ Biosafety Res. Jul-Sep;2(3):173-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15612415
34.Al-Rajab AJ, Schiavon M. (2010) Degradation of 14C-glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in three agricultural soils. J Environ Sci (China). ;22(9):1374-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21174968
35.Al-Rousan, Hiyam; Al-Hmoud, Nisrren; Ibrahim, Mohammed (2010) A study on the occurrence of genetically modified soybean and maize feed products in the Jordanian market Journal of Cell & Molecular Biology;Dec, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p87 http://jcmb.halic.edu.tr/pdf/8-2/10.pdf
36.Al-Salameen F, Kumar V, Al-Aqeel H, Al-Hashash H, Hejji AB. (2012) Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait. GM Crops Food. Oct-Dec;3(4):283-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22892687
37.Miguel A. Altieri, Peter M. Rosset, Clara I. Nicholls (1997) Biological control and agricultural modernization: Towards resolution of some contradictions Agriculture and Human Values September, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 303-310 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1007499401616
38.Altieri, M.A. and Rosset, P. (1999). Ten reasons why biotechnology will not ensure food security, protect the environment and reduce poverty in the developing world. AgBioForum, 2(3&4), 155-162. http://agbioforum.org/v2n34/v2n34a03-altieri.htm
39.Altieri MA, Rosset P. (1999) Strengthening the case for why biotechnology will not help. The developing world: A response to MCGloughlin. AgBioForum. 2(3-4):226–236. http://www.agbioforum.org/v2n34/v2n34a14-altieri.htm
40.Altieri, M. A. (2000). The ecological impacts of transgenic crops on agroecosystem health. Ecosystem Health, 6, 13-23. http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20013038747.html
41.Altieri, M. A. (2001). Genetically engineered crops: Separating the myths from the reality. Bulletin of Science Technology and Society, 21(2), 129-146. http://www.bio-nica.info/Biblioteca/Altieri2001MythsAndReality.PDF
42.Altieri, M. A. (2003). The sociocultural and food security impacts of genetic pollution via transgenic crops of traditional varieties in Latin American centers of peasant agriculture. Bulletin of Science, Technology, & Society, 23,1-10. http://bst.sagepub.com/content/23/5/350.abstract
43.Miguel A. Altieri (2005) The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production Bulletin of Science Technology Society August vol. 25 no. 4 361-371 http://bst.sagepub.com/content/25/4/361.abstract
44.Alvarez, M., Gimenez, I. T., Saitua, H., Enriz Ricardo, D., & Giannini Fernando, A. (2012). Toxicidad en peces de herbicidas formulados con glifosato Toxicity in fishes of herbicides formulated with glyphosate. Acta Toxicol. Argent, 20(1), 5-13. http://www.ataonline.org.ar/bibliotecavirtual/acta_toxicologica/vol_20_1/alvarez.pdf

45.Alvarez-Morales A (2002) Transgenes in maize landraces in Oaxaca: official report on the extent and implications. The 7th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Beijing, China October 10-16 page 65 http://www.saveourseeds.org/downloads/proceedings_BEIJING_oct_2002.pdf
46.Carlos Alvarez-Moya; Mónica Reynoso Silva; Carlos Valdez Ramírez; David Gómez Gallardo; Rafael León Sánchez; Alejandro Canales Aguirre; Alfredo Feria Velasco (2014) Comparison of the in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity of glyphosate isopropylamine salt in three different organisms Genet. Mol. Biol. vol.37 no.1 Ribeirão Preto http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1415-47572014000100016&script=sci_arttext
47.Amanor-Boadu V, Amanor-Boadu Y (2002). A survey of post-marketing surveillance of potential human late health effects of genetically modified foods’ initiatives: lessons for Canada’s strategy. Centre for Surveillance Coordination, Health Canada http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/pyf20i00
48.Amer SM, Aly FA. (2001) Genotoxic effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and its metabolite 2,4-dichlorophenol in mouse. Mutat Res. 2001 Jul 25;494(1-2):1-12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11423340

49.G Amofah (2014) Recommendations from a Meeting on Health Implications of Genetically Modified Organism (GMO). Ghana Medical Journal. Vol 48, No 2 (2014) http://www.ajol.info/index.php/gmj/article/view/106955

50.Anderson, P. L., Hellmich, R. L. Sears, M. K., Sumerford, D. V., and Lewis, L. C. (2004) Effects of Cry1Ab-expressing corn anthers on monarch butterfly larvae. Environ. Entomol. 33: 1109-1115. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/0046-225X-33.4.1109
51.Anderson, P. L., Hellmich, R. L., Prasifka, J. R., and Lewis, L. C. (2005) Effects on fitness and behavior of monarch butterfly larvae exposed to a combination of Cry1Ab-expressing corn anthers and pollen. Environ. Entomol. 34:944-952. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/0046-225X-34.4.944
52.Andow, D.A. and A.Hilbeck. (2004) Science-based risk assessment for non-target effects of transgenic crops. Bioscience 54(7):637-649 www.cbd.int/doc/articles/2008/a-00634.pdf
53.‎Andow DA, Lövei GL, Arpaia S (2006) Ecological risk assessment for Bt crops. Nat Biotechnol 24:749–751 http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v24/n7/full/nbt0706-749.html
54.Andow, D.A.& Zwahlen,C. (2006) Assessing environmental risks of transgenic plants. Ecology Letters 9:196-214 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16958885
55.Andow, D. A., Lövei, G. L., & Arpaia, S. (2009). Cry toxins and proteinase inhibitors in transgenic plants do have non-zero effects on natural enemies in the laboratory: Rebuttal to Shelton et al. 2009. Environmental entomology, 38(6), 1528-1532. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/022.038.0602

56.Andow, D. A.; Lövei, G. L. (2012) Cry Toxins in Transgenic Plants Have Direct Effects on Natural Enemies in the Laboratory Environmental Entomology, Volume 41, Issue 5, Pages 1045-1276, pp. 1045-1049(5) http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/EN11238?journalCode=enve

57.Anghel G, Popovici V (2008). Romanian approach to genetically modified organisms. Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Science Series; Vol. 17 Issue 1, p183 http://steconomice.uoradea.ro/anale/volume/2008/v1-international-business-and-european-integration/033.pdf

58.Annett, R., Habibi, H. R. and Hontela, A. (2014), Impact of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides on the freshwater environment. J. Appl. Toxicol., 34: 458–479. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jat.2997/abstract
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66.Aris A, Leblanc S. (2011) Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Reprod Toxicol. May;31(4):528-33 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21338670
67.Aris Aziz (2011) Response to Bayer CropScience’s position on the findings of glufosinate and its metabolite Reproductive toxicology vol. 32, no4, pp. 496-497 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623811003844
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72.J-F Arnaud, F Viard, M Delescluse, and J Cuguen (2003) Evidence for gene flow via seed dispersal from crop to wild relatives in Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae): consequences for the release of genetically modified crop species with weedy lineages. Proc Biol Sci. Aug 7; 270(1524): 1565–1571. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1691408/

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76.Mehmet Artemel (2012) The Turkish Council of State orders a stay on the importation of GMOs. Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice (2012) 7 (6): 403-405. http://jiplp.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/6/403

77.A. Ashouri, Dominique Michaud, Conrad Cloutier (2001) Recombinant and classically selected factors of potato plant resistance to the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata , variously affect the potato aphid parasitoid Aphidius nigripes BioControl December, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 401-418 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1014123712776#page-1

78.Iulie Aslaksen, Anne Ingeborg Myhr (2007) “The worth of a wildflower”: Precautionary perspectives on the environmental risk of GMOs Ecological Economics Volume 60, Issue 3, 15 January, Pages 489–497 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800906003612

79.Iulie Aslaksen; Solveig Glomsrød; Anne Ingeborg Myhr (2013) Post-normal science and ecological economics: strategies for precautionary approaches and sustainable development Int. J. of Sustainable Development, Vol.16, No.1/2, pp.107 – 126 http://www.inderscience.com/info/inarticle.php?artid=53793

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